Thursday, August 7, 2014

TPC-DS with Vector Hadoop Edition

My kick-off blog entry for Database Architects contained the first announcement of a product my friends over at the Vectorwise group of Actian in Amsterdam have been working on in the past years: the Hadoop version of  what is now called Actian Vector. In this post, I will go behind the scenes of this system, which I think is currently the fastest SQL-on-Hadoop system available.

In my first post, this system was only known under its code name Vortex, though the marketeers of Actian in the end have branded it Actian Vector - Hadoop Edition. They in fact advertise the product mostly under yet another name: Actian Analytics Platform - Hadoop SQL Edition. This platform contains two main products: besides Vortex you also get Actian DataFlow (formerly Pervasive's "DataRush" product) which one can compare to something like Yahoo Pig on steroids, that is, an interface to build ETL dataflows with full relational operators, equipped with a graphical user interface (KNIME). It shares no code with Pig, and I say "on steroids" because it is both faster and has broader functionality than Pig; e.g. it not only is a relational processing pipeline, but also contains a suite of data mining and data integration algorithms as well. Actian DataFlow has an optimized parallel path to load data into Vortex. It is a luxury for Vortex to launch with such an easy-to-use and function Hadoop-design ETL system.

SQL-on-Hadoop is in the spotlight lately since IT users are (i) looking to standardize their cluster hardware and sofware management and Hadoop has become this standard software layer and (ii) because typical Big Data pipelines, while they may start with many messy textual- or log-datasources, in the end spit out cleaner and more structured results, that can be processed by SQL systems. This also allows to directly leverage the many existing SQL business applications over Hadoop based data. From what Actian people tell me, there is a lot of interest for Vortex, and some customers already bought the platform right at announcement. Vortex was announced on June 3 2014 at the Hadoop Summit in San Jose (see the video or flip through the presentation), and it has been released by the end of June 2014.

I started to write this blogpost with the simple goal to provide the details of the performance results that were obtained on a side-by side comparison with Impala version 1.3.1 on the benchmark that the Cloudera folks have released at This is a 19-query subset of the normally 99 query TPC-DS benchmark. TPC-DS has been in the making forever and seems to take ages to replace TPC-H, so this may be seen as a good sign of initial industry adoption (TPC-DS still has no official results). Though, on the downside, selecting 19 queries out of 99 may not be a very objective use of the benchmark, and additionally the Impala subset also modified the queries by removing all ROLLUP and window functions (not supported in Impala) and also added extra SQL clauses that help Impala prune partitions. But my understanding of the TPC-DS benchmark is still limited so I still hold my judgement on whether this 19-query subset is representative. It just takes a lot of time to analyze and play with 99 different queries, and I have not yet found that time...

The experiment, at scale factor 3000 (3TB raw data) was run on a small cluster of 5 nodes, each with 64GB RAM and 16 cores (Xeon, 2.4GHz) and hyperthreading disabled. The nodes each have two 1Gb ethernet adapters and two 1TB magnetic disks. Both systems are hot (second run), and the Hadoop compute node configuration has not changed since data import (hence we can assume both systems read local HDFS blocks where possible). All results are in seconds, first line is Vortex, the second line is Impala (with its stock settings as published in the original Impala blogpost, back in January):

Q03 Q07 Q19 Q27 Q34 Q42 Q43 Q46 Q52 Q53 Q55 Q59 Q63 Q65 Q68 Q73 Q79 Q89 Q98
Vortex 0.98 2.52 2.49 2.71 2.48 0.39 4.15 5.19 0.64 1.13 0.54 30.15 1.10 10.77 2.53 1.20 3.83 2.02 1.00
Impala 18.78 23.85 18.01 20.16 45.30 5.47 62.33 30.53 5.59 22.06 5.33 456.67 21.92 262.67 18.40 9.05 17.72 34.28 7.35

In total, Vortex is 14x faster than Impala on this benchmark. Inferencing from the Impala follow-up blogpost on this benchmark in May, we could even conclude that Vortex also is much faster than SparkPrestoDB and the "Stinger" release of Hive.  Let me state that I highly esteem Impala as an attempt to create a fast analytical database system for Hadoop. It has quite a few nice features, such as support for compressed columnar formats as ORCfile and Parquet, and it can compile queries at run-time to machine code using LLVM. However, its support for SQL is still far from complete and below what in my MonetDB and Vectorwise experience the analytical data market demands. Which is a .. very large amount of features, including not only SQL-99 analytical extensions (window functions, rollup), but also workload management, access control and a further longlist. Hence, Impala still has a long way to go. Actian Vector has been on the market for four years, has been in development for a decade, and its SQL frontend and API have been on the market even longer (they stem from Ingres). By now with many customers in production, I almost dare start to call Vector "mature". So, in my experience it does take at least a decade to reach maturity. The biggest shortfall of Impala in this benchmark, is that it runs each query single-threaded: Impala just uses one core per node for query processing. In an IT environment where each low end-server has at least 16 cores this could mean a 16-fold  hit in performance, and the number of cores per server is still rapidly increasing (newer Intel machines can have up to 120 cores), so it will get even worse in the future. I do expect that at some point Impala will get multi-threaded, but as explained in the sequel, exploiting this efficiently on benchmarks like TPC-DS is by no means trivial. On the one hand, one needs to keep all cores busy, while on the other hand all these busy cores cause a large increase in memory cache pressure and network bandwidth, which can easily draw the system into all kinds of bottlenecks.

Digging Deeper..
Writing this blogpost just about the overall results on this benchmark left the database architect in me a bit unsatisfied, so I decided to show an example how the network bottleneck can affect TPC-DS, and what can be done about it. Taking Vectorwise from being the fastest per-core single-server analytical database system on the market into cluster territory required a lot of work on the columnar rewriter (optimizer) of Vectorwise. Now, we will dig deep into optimization for one of the benchmark queries in particular, namely TPC-DS Q98 - Impala flavor:

select i_item_desc,
sum(ss_ext_sales_price) as itemrevenue
-- commented out, Impala does not support PARTITION BY -- sum(ss_ext_sales_price)*100/sum(sum(ss_ext_sales_price)) OVER (PARTITION BY i_class) 
ss_item_sk = i_item_sk
and i_category in ('Jewelry', 'Sports', 'Books')
and ss_sold_date_sk = d_date_sk
and ss_sold_date_sk between 2451911 and 2451941  -- manually added partition key filter
and d_date between '2001-01-01' and '2001-01-31'
group by
order by

limit 1000; -- added limit

To make their 19 query derived subset of TPC-DS run well, the Impala folks modified the queries from the official TPC-DS definitions. In case of Q98 they added the clause:
ss_sold_date_sk between 2451911 and 2451941
in order for it to trigger partition pruning (plus, use of the "partition by" SQL-99 clause was removed, and the result was made smaller with a LIMIT 1000). In the original Impala setup - which we followed - the fact table store_sales is partitioned on date, or rather the foreign key column of the date dimension ss_sold_date_sk. The above selection predicate is phrased directly on this foreign key, which is the table partitioning key, and this allows Impala to conclude that the great majority of the partitions contain irrelevant data and can be skipped (there are multiple years of data in TPC-DS, and this selection corresponds to just one month). This explicit hack had to be placed because Impala's optimizer cannot yet automatically infer this foreign key restriction from the SQL predicate
d_date between '2001-01-01' and '2001-01-31'
which is exactly the same restriction.

As an aside, TPC-DS uses a date dimension that has preemptively been filled with decades of dates, even while the fact tables refer just to a small time period of a few years. Hence selecting 5% of the tuples in the date dimension either means selecting 0 tuples from the fact table (because the fact table just contains tuples from a few years, not intersecting with the selected 5%), or more likely, selecting much more than 5% from the fact table. This may initially be missed by optimizers, who may just use the selection percentage of the dimension as the selection percentage of the fact table. I saw it happen in Vectorwise, but that got fixed ;-), but PostgreSQL makes the same mistake. It is relatively straightforward, however, to fix the cost model estimates for this by looking at the value distribution of the ss_sold_date_sk column in the optimizer statistics and comparing them to the value distribution of the d_date_sk column, and adjusting the plan estimates accordingly.

In the TPC-DS schema design used in the Vortex experiments, the store_sales is partitioned on its primary key, not on the date foreign key, but a clustered index is created on the ss_sold_date_sk column. This means that each partition is organized in date order, yet holds a uniform subset of the table. The "MinMax indexes" which Vectorwise automatically creates on all columns, and some intricate logic in the columnar rewriter of Vectorwise, allows Vortex to skip all irrelevant data straight from the normal TPC-DS schema. No help required.

While the Actian engineers were looking at the TPC-DS benchmark, I got involved as well, and helped provide some ideas for optimization. It was my first confrontation with TPC-DS and now I have looked at 19 out of the 99 queries, so my impression and understanding of its "choke points" is still very partial compared to my understanding of its predecessor TPC-H (see my post on the choke points of TPC-H, and an explanation of what I actually mean with "choke points"). Whereas large joins are an important problem in TPC-H, in case of TPC-DS on cluster systems, it appears that a bigger challenge is handling large-scale aggregations. An aggregation is a GROUP BY query, but if the amount of GROUP BY result tuples is large, and unrelated to the partitioning keys, then all nodes must help in computing this large group (because it is so large and thus expensive), and need to send data to each other (because it is unrelated to the partitioning). This all-to-all communication pattern is the worst that can happen to a parallel query plan, as it can lead to the system becoming network bound, and this also happened in the GROUP BY of Q98, illustrated below:

The above picture shows the un-optimized original query plan that Vortex used. The single-server Vectorwise aggregation normally chooses between various parallel (multi-core) aggregation strategies, where C is the amount of cores involved in the query on a single node. Here are two such strategies being considered:
  1. Scan(tuples)=>Aggr(Local)=>eXchangeUnion XU(C:1)=>Aggr(Global)
  2. Scan(tuples)=>eXchangeHashSplit XHS(C:C)=>Aggr(Partitioned)=>eXchangeUnion XU(C:1)
An eXchangeUnion XU(C:1) runs on C input threads and unions, sending their output to one thread. The eXchangehashSplit XHS(C:C) runs on C threads and distributes all tuples based on hash code, sending the output to C threads. In the first strategy, each thread scans (a supposed different) set of tuples, locally aggregates that data, and then sends the aggregate results to one coordinating thread. This thread re-aggregates the results (e.g. global SUM is a SUM of local SUMs), and returns these. In the second strategy, the tuples are hash-partitioned according to the aggregation keys (XHS): each thread reads some tuples, and sends the tuples to one of the other threads (which thread is determined by a "hash" code computed over the GROUP BY key). Thereafter, each thread only has tuples that hash to the same number: the data has been re-partitioned. Subsequently, each thread can locally compute the aggregate in one go, because all data of each GROUP is in the same thread. The final result is the union of all results (XU).

The initial parallel execution model based on exchange operators originally implemented in  single-server Vectorwise was extended in Vortex with distributed  exchange operators (XU, XHS), which behave exactly the same, but can exchange data over the network also with threads that run on other compute nodes. In the below distributed variants of the two strategies introduced above, N is the amount of nodes, and C@N means that C threads are running on N nodes, hence C*N threads are running in the total system (**this is just convenience notation and does not imply that Vortex always uses the same amount C of threads on all N nodes):
  1. =>Aggr(Local)=>DXU(C@N:1)=>Aggr(Global)
  2. =>DXHS(C@N:C@N)=>Aggr(Partitioned)=>DXU(C@N:1)
Given the somewhat large size of the GROUP BY (53K results), the second strategy was chosen in the graphically depicted query plan above (DXHS operators). The cost model of Vortex did not choose the first strategy, because in each thread the Aggr(local) would locally aggregate and produces roughly 50K results, and then all 80 threads would exchange 80 * 50K tuples. This would mean that the last Aggr(Global) step of the query is that a single thread needs to aggregate 80*50K = 4M tuples: significant non-parallel work, therefore little speedup. Therefore the second strategy is superior here.  The second strategy exchanges the tuple stream based on a hash code computed over the GROUP BY columns, such that each thread receives data for a distinct subset of groups. Therefore, the second strategy only aggregates once, and more importantly, all cores participate in the Aggr(Partitioned) computation.  The problem in this second approach, which the trained Vectorwise query performance analyst identifies by the dark red color of the operators in the execution plan, is that these DXHS operations are quite slow. Each compute node is sending and receiving 16*50K tuples, and the tuples are quite wide (45 bytes) so this is close to 40MB of data, and sending that over Ethernet takes time. Essentially, the system is running into the dreaded network bottleneck. We also run Vortex on clusters with Infiniband, where this problem is less severe (but still occurs on some queries). However, many Hadoop clusters just have an Ethernet interconnect.

For this reason, a new strategy was added to the Vortex rewriter, now showing all three:
  1. Aggr(Local)=>DXU(N:1)=>Aggr(Global)
  2. DXHS(C@N:C@N)=>Aggr(Partitioned)=>DXU(C@N:1)
  3. XHS(C@N:C@local)=>Aggr(Local)=>DXHS(C@N:C@N)=>Aggr(Partitioned)=>DXU(C@N:1)
Here C@local means that the local XHS (not DXHS) redistributes the data only inside the same node. In our benchmark, it just exchanges data between each 16 local threads, for which network communication is not required. Each thread then pre-aggregates the data locally, producing independent non-overlapping results among the 16 threads. The effect of this pre-aggregation is that the amount of tuples is reduced; in this case, by a factor 10. The subsequent DXHS operation thus has to send 10x less data and avoids the network bottleneck. All in all, Q98 became twice faster with this optimization.

Note that an alternative variant of the third strategy that would omit =>XHS(C@N:C@local) and just tries to first aggregate locally before sending to the network, would be much less effective. Thanks to the local exchange, each thread gathers relevant keys from 16 neighbors, and finds 100 duplicates. Without the local exchange, one would therefore find on average just 100/16=6 duplicates, hence the subsequent DXHS network communication volume would be much less reduced.

This has been just one example of the many cost-based rewrite rules that were introduced in Vortex. As David DeWitt rightly notes, query optimization is more complicated than rocket science and thus can infinitely evolve, but given the results Actian has seen so far, I think that Actian Vector - Hadoop Edition (Vortex) is already an interesting addition to the sprawling SQL-on-Hadoop market. With my students, we are discovering many scientific challenges as well and look forward to reporting on our results in addressing some of these, in the near future.